Though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France since the 16th century and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion in the s, the pace of change picked up in the s with increased publication of French engravings illustrating the latest Paris styles. Not your idea of poetry, perhaps, but, after a new and growing fashion in poetry, truly poetic. Traditional motifs on textiles are no longer considered the property of a certain social class or age group. Fashion trend and s in fashion. In the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced.
Manner or mode; way: Set the table in this fashion. See Synonyms at method. A personal, often idiosyncratic manner: Kind or variety; sort: Shape or form; configuration: To give shape or form to; make: To train or influence into a particular state or character: The teacher fashions her students into fine singers. She sings after a fashion. I mended it, after a fashion. See faction 1 ]. Switch to new thesaurus. Quotations "Only the minute and the future are interesting in fashion - it exists to be destroyed" [Karl Lagerfeld] "Fashion is made to become unfashionable" [Coco Chanel].
The approach used to do something: A distinctive way of expressing oneself: To create by forming, combining, or altering materials: To make or become suitable to a particular situation or use: Mode Stil abkommen Art und Weise. Are you interested in fashion? Fashions in music and art are always changing. Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the Middle East following the arrival of the Turks , who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East.
The beginning in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in clothing styles can be fairly reliably dated. Historians, including James Laver and Fernand Braudel , date the start of Western fashion in clothing to the middle of the 14th century ,   though they tend to rely heavily on contemporary imagery  and illuminated manuscripts were not common before the fourteenth century.
This created the distinctive Western outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers. The pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and men's fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion with confidence and precision to date images, often to within five years, particularly in the case of images from the 15th century. Initially, changes in fashion led to a fragmentation across the upper classes of Europe of what had previously been a very similar style of dressing and the subsequent development of distinctive national styles.
These national styles remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, mostly originating from Ancien Régime France.
In the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced. Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats. Albrecht Dürer illustrated the differences in his actual or composite contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century illustration, right.
The "Spanish style" of the late 16th century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, and after a struggle in the midth century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century. Though different textile colors and patterns changed from year to year,  the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut, changed more slowly.
Men's fashions were largely derived from military models, and changes in a European male silhouette were galvanized in theaters of European war where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles such as the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie.
Though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France since the 16th century and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion in the s, the pace of change picked up in the s with increased publication of French engravings illustrating the latest Paris styles. By , all Western Europeans were dressing alike or thought they were ; local variation became first a sign of provincial culture and later a badge of the conservative peasant.
Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations, and the textile industry certainly led many trends, the history of fashion design is normally understood to date from when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris. The Haute house was the name established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry.
These fashion houses have to adhere to standards such as keeping at least twenty employees engaged in making the clothes, showing two collections per year at fashion shows, and presenting a certain number of patterns to costumers. The idea of unisex dressing originated in the s when designers such as Pierre Cardin and Rudi Gernreich created garments, such as stretch jersey tunics or leggings, meant to be worn by both males and females.
The impact of unisex expands more broadly to encompass various themes in fashion including androgyny, mass-market retail, and conceptual clothing. Some men's styles blended the sensuality and expressiveness despite the conservative trend, the growing gay-rights movement and an emphasis on youth allowed for a new freedom to experiment with style, fabrics such as wool crepe, which had previously been associated with women's attire was used by designers when creating male clothing.
The four major current fashion capitals are acknowledged to be Paris, Milan, New York City, and London, which are all headquarters to the greatest fashion companies and are renowned for their major influence on global fashion. Fashion weeks are held in these cities, where designers exhibit their new clothing collections to audiences. A succession of major designers such as Coco Chanel and Yves Saint-Laurent have kept Paris as the center most watched by the rest of the world, although haute couture is now subsidized by the sale of ready-to-wear collections and perfume using the same branding.
Modern Westerners have a wide number of choices available in the selection of their clothes. What a person chooses to wear can reflect his or her personality or interests. When people who have high cultural status start to wear new or different clothes, a fashion trend may start.
People who like or respect these people become influenced by their personal style and begin wearing similarly styled clothes. Fashions may vary considerably within a society according to age, social class , generation, occupation, and geography and may also vary over time. If an older person dresses according to the fashion young people use, he or she may look ridiculous in the eyes of both young and older people. The terms fashionista and fashion victim refer to someone who slavishly follows current fashions.
One can regard the system of sporting various fashions as a fashion language incorporating various fashion statements using a grammar of fashion. Compare some of the work of Roland Barthes. In recent years, Asian fashion has become increasingly significant in local and global markets.
Countries such as China, Japan, India, and Pakistan have traditionally had large textile industries, which have often been drawn upon by Western designers, but now Asian clothing styles are also gaining influence based on their own ideas. The notion of global fashion industry is a product of the modern age. It was handmade for individuals, either as home production or on order from dressmakers and tailors.
By the beginning of the 20th century—with the rise of new technologies such as the sewing machine , the rise of global capitalism and the development of the factory system of production, and the proliferation of retail outlets such as department stores—clothing had increasingly come to be mass-produced in standard sizes and sold at fixed prices.
Although the fashion industry developed first in Europe and America, as of [update] , it is an international and highly globalized industry, with clothing often designed in one country, manufactured in another, and sold worldwide. For example, an American fashion company might source fabric in China and have the clothes manufactured in Vietnam, finished in Italy, and shipped to a warehouse in the United States for distribution to retail outlets internationally.
The fashion industry has long been one of the largest employers in the United States,  and it remains so in the 21st century. Because data on the fashion industry typically are reported for national economies and expressed in terms of the industry's many separate sectors, aggregate figures for world production of textiles and clothing are difficult to obtain.
However, by any measure, the clothing industry accounts for a significant share of world economic output. These levels consist of many separate but interdependent sectors. Each sector is devoted to the goal of satisfying consumer demand for apparel under conditions that enable participants in the industry to operate at a profit. Fashion trends are influenced by several factors including cinema, celebrities, climate, creative explorations, political, economical, social and technological.
Examining these factors is called a PEST analysis. Fashion forecasters can use this information to help determine growth or decline of a particular trend. Fashion trends change daily, it can not stay unchanged.
Not only did political events make a huge impact on fashion trends but also the political figure played a critical role in forecasting the fashion trend. For example, First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy was a fashionable icon of the early s who led formal dressing trend. By wearing a Chanel suit, a structural Givenchy shift dress or a soft color Cassini coat with huge buttons, it created her elegant look and led a delicate trend.
Furthermore, political revolution also made much impact on the fashion trend. For example, during the s the economy had become wealthier, divorce rate was increasing and government approved the birth control pill. This revolution inspired younger generation to rebellion. In , the leg-baring miniskirt has become a major fashion trend of the s. Given that fashion designers began to experiment with the shapes of garment, loose sleeveless, micro-minis, flared skirts, and trumpet sleeves.
In this case, mini-skirt trend became an icon of the s. Moreover, political movement built an impressive relationship with fashion trend. For instance, during Vietnam war, the youth of America made a movement that affected the whole country. In the s, the fashion trend was full of fluorescent colors, prints patterns, bell-bottom jeans, fringed vests, and skirt became a protest outfit of the s. This trend was called Hippie and it is still affecting current fashion trend. Technology plays a large role in most aspects of today's society.
Technological influences are growing more apparent in the fashion industry. Advances and new developments are shaping and creating current and future trends. Developments such as wearable technology have become an important trend in fashion and will continue with advances such as clothing constructed with solar panels that charge devices and smart fabrics that enhance wearer comfort by changing color or texture based on environmental changes. The fashion industry is seeing how 3D printing technology has influenced designers such as Iris Van Herpen and Kimberly Ovitz.
These designers have been heavily experimenting and developing 3D printed couture pieces. As the technology grows, the 3D printers will become more accessible to designers and eventually consumers, which could potentially shape the fashion industry entirely. Internet technology such as online retailers and social media platforms have given way for trends to be identified, marketed and sold immediately.
Posts on Instagram or Facebook can easily increase awareness about new trends in fashion, which subsequently may create high demand for specific items or brands,  new "buy now button" technology can link these styles with direct sales. Machine vision technology has been developed to track how fashions spread through society. The industry can now see the direct correlation on how fashion shows influence street-chic outfits. The effects can now be quantified and provide valuable feedback to fashion houses, designers and consumers regarding trends.
Military technology has played an important role in the fashion industry. The camouflage pattern in clothing was developed to help military personal be less visible to enemy forces. A trend emerged in the s and camouflage fabric was introduced to street wear.
The camouflage fabric trend disappeared and resurfaced several times since then. Camouflage started to appear in high fashion by the s. A company called Hyperstealth is said to have created a technology that can make an object or person invisible.
The company has continued developing this technology, but due to safety and legal concerns minimal information has been released to the public. Additional projects such as using interactive or intelligent technology sources that will be embedding into textiles will adjust to surroundings such as weather. Clothing is much more than fashion, it is a style of life an expression of ones self.
Social media is one of the biggest platforms to exhibit and connect fashion trends with millions of people all at once worldwide. With the influence of social media, celebrities and bloggers, their voice are easily being heard and have impact on fashion and trend at any time.
Fashion and music are inseparable. Prabal Gurung  highlighted the importance of music to his shows, saying "each season we want to tell a story for 10 minutes…. Music is a representation of fashion that expresses the abstract design concept into relatable harmony for viewers.
Fashion relates to social and cultural context of an environment. According to Matika,  "Elements of popular culture become fused when a person's trend is associated with a preference for a genre of music…like music, news or literature, fashion has been fused into everyday lives.
Atop a New Orleans police car in a red-and-white Gucci high-collar dress and combat boots, she sits among the ruins of Hurricane Katrina, immediately implanting herself in the biggest national debate on police brutality and race relations in modern day. Runway show is a reflection of fashion trend and a designer's thought. For designer like Vivienne Westwood, runway show is a platform for her voice on politics and current events. For her AW15 menswear show, according to Water,  "where models with severely bruised faces channeled eco-warriors on a mission to save the planet.
As we undergo a global economic downturn [ when? People have also become more conscious of the impact their everyday consumption has on the environment and society. They're looking for ways to mediate their material desires with an aim to do more good in the world. A linear economy is slowly shifting to a circular one. In today's linear economical system, manufacturers extract resources from the earth to make products that will soon be discarded in landfills, on the other hand, under the circular model, the production of goods operates like systems in nature, where the waste and demise of a substance becomes the food and source of growth for something new.
This Dutch company "represents a new consuming philosophy that is about using instead of owning," according to MUD's website. The concept also protects the company from volatile cotton prices.
MUD is responsible for any repairs during the lease period. Consumption as a share of gross domestic product in China has fallen for six decades, from 76 percent in to 28 percent in China plans to reduce tariffs on a number of consumer goods and expand its hour transit visa plan to more cities in an effort to stimulate domestic consumption. The announcement of import tax reductions follows changes in June , when the government cut the tariffs on clothing, cosmetics and various other goods by half.
Among the changes — easier tax refunds for overseas shoppers and accelerated openings of more duty-free shops in cities covered by the hour visa scheme. The hour visa was introduced in Beijing and Shanghai in January and has been extended to 18 Chinese cities. According to reports at the same time, Chinese consumer spending in other countries such as Japan has slowed even though the yen has dropped. Consumers all have different needs and demands that have to be suited. A person's needs change frequently.
An important factor to take into consideration when thinking of consumers' needs is the key demographics of the customer. Gender, age, income, and even profession can help a company better understand the needs of their customers. For example, a woman who is pregnant could be looking for diapers, baby strollers, and maternity clothes.
Her needs would differ greatly from a woman with children that just went off to college or a teen entering high school. Often consumers need to be told what they want. Fashion companies have to do their research to ensure they know their customers' needs before developing solutions.
You cannot start with the technology and try to figure out where you are going to sell it". The best way to understand the consumers' needs and therefore predict fashion trends is through market research.
There are two research methods: Benefits of primary research is specific information about a fashion brand's consumer is explored. Surveys are helpful tools; questions can be open-ended or closed-ended.
A negative factor surveys and interviews present is that the answers can be biased, due to wording in the survey or on face-to-face interactions. Focus groups, about 8 to 12 people, can be beneficial because several points can be addressed in depth. However, there are drawbacks to this tactic, too. With such a small sample size, it is hard to know if the greater public would react the same way as the focus group. There is less of a bias because consumers are just performing their daily tasks, not necessarily realizing they are being observed.
For example, observing the public by taking street style photos of people, the consumer did not get dressed in the morning knowing that would have their photo taken necessarily. They just wear what they would normally wear.
Through observation patterns can be seen, helping trend forecasters know what their target market needs and wants. Knowing the needs of the consumers will increase a fashion companies' sales and profits. Through research and studying the consumers' lives the needs of the customer can be obtained and help fashion brands know what trends the consumers are ready for. Fashion breathes on media and medium. The media plays a significant role when it comes to fashion.
For instance, an important part of fashion is fashion journalism. Editorial critique, guidelines, and commentary can be found on television and in magazines, newspapers, fashion websites, social networks, and fashion blogs.
In recent years, fashion blogging and YouTube videos have become a major outlet for spreading trends and fashion tips, creating an online culture of sharing one's style on a website or Instagram account.
Through these media outlets readers and viewers all over the world can learn about fashion, making it very accessible.
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